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Kary Mullis

About Kary Mullis

Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist and author who received both the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Japan Prize in 1993 for his work on the polymerase chain reaction.

Early life

He obtained a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1972


He claimed that LSD helped him develop the polymerase chain reaction that helps amplify specific DNA sequences.

Family of Kary Mullis

He was married four times and had three children by two ex-wives.

Close associates of Kary Mullis

He was friends with LSD creator Albert Hofmann.

Adrian Bird

About Adrian Bird

Well known for his research on CpG islands in DNA and on a biochemical process known as DNA methylation, this prominent British geneticist received, among other prestigious honors, the Gabor Medal; the Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine; and the GlaxoSmithKline Prize.

Early life

After earning an undergraduate degree in biochemistry from the University of Sussex, he received his doctorate from the University of Edinburgh and conducted additional research for Yale University, the University of Zurich, and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council.


He directed and helped establish Edinburgh, Scotland s Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology.

Family of Adrian Bird

He was raised in Wolverhampton and Kidderminster, England. His marriage to geneticist Catherine Abbott produced four children.

Close associates of Adrian Bird

He is a contemporary of fellow British geneticist Alec Jeffreys.

Frances Arnold

About Frances Arnold

American scientist who pioneered methods of directed evolution to create useful biological systems. She has been elected to The National Academy of Sciences, The National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Being elected to all three National Academies in the US is a rare accomplishment for a scientist.

Early life

She received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California Berkeley.


In 2011 she received the Draper Prize for her her work in engineering. She was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2018.

Family of Frances Arnold

She has three sons.

Close associates of Frances Arnold

She received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2012 from President Barack Obama.

Francis Crick

About Francis Crick

Famous English biologist and neuroscientist who became one of the most important contributors to understanding DNA when he co-discovered its helical structure in 1953. He was also the one to con the term “central dogma” in reference to how genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.

Early life

He stopped going to church at age twelve, because he wanted to pursue scientific answers.


He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for helping to discover the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

Family of Francis Crick

He got married to Ruth Doreen crick on February 18, 1940, and after their spanorce on May 8, 1947, married Odile crick on August 14, 1949.

Close associates of Francis Crick

He was the co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson.

Thomas Dale Brock

About Thomas Dale Brock

Discovered hyperthermophiles, high-temperature bacteria that live in the Great Fountains of Yellowstone.

Early life

He spent over a year in the U.S. Navy electronics program and then attended Ohio State University with the dream of becoming a writer.


He published an article titled “Life at High Temperatures” in Science journal in 1967.

Family of Thomas Dale Brock

He was born in Cleveland, Ohio to Helen Sophia Ringwald and Thomas Carter Brock.

Close associates of Thomas Dale Brock

He translated work by microbiologist Robert Koch when contributing to Milestones in Microbiology 1546 to 1940.