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Gerd Binnig

About Gerd Binnig

German physicist who co-developed a scanning and tunneling microscope, which earned him the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics. He was appointed an IBM Fellow in 1987.

Early life

At just 10 years of age, without knowing much about the science, he decided to become a physicist.


The scanning and tunneling microscope he invented allowed scientists to study inspanidual atoms, a breakthrough for its time.

Family of Gerd Binnig

He married Lore Wagler in 1969.

Close associates of Gerd Binnig

Ernst Ruska, his partner in developing the electron microscope, shared his Nobel Prize award.

Marin Soljacic

About Marin Soljacic

Croatian physicist who was a pioneer of wireless energy transfer. He has also done important, government-funded, research into photonic crystals in solar cells.

Early life

He received a scholarship to MIT where he studied physics and electrical engineering.


He received a $20 million grant to do research for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Family of Marin Soljacic

He was born in Zagreb.

Close associates of Marin Soljacic

He is an electrical engineer like Bern Dibner.

Kip Thorne

About Kip Thorne

Notable for his contributions to the theoretical physics sub-fields of astrophysics and gravitational physics, he investigated relativity, black holes, red giants, wormholes, gravitational waves, and the possibility of time travel. He was awarded the Lilienfeld Prize in 1996 and the Einstein Medal in 2009.

Early life

After earning his bachelor s degree from the California Institute of Technology and his doctorate from Princeton University, he began a distinguished teaching career at his undergraduate alma mater.


He contributed to the 2014 Christopher Nolan-directed feature film Interstellar as both a scientific consultant and an executive producer.

Family of Kip Thorne

Raised in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he grew up in Logan, Utah, as the child of chemistry professor D. Wynne Thorne and economics professor Alison Cornish Thorne. Before ending in spanorce, his marriage to Linda Jean Peterson produced children named Bret and Kares; he later married biokinesiology professor Carolee Joyce Winstein.

Close associates of Kip Thorne

Thorne s Princeton University doctoral advisor was Albert Einstein and Neils Bohr associate John Archibald Wheeler.

Karel Bossart

About Karel Bossart

Rocket designer who created the Atlas ICBM in 1951. His rocket was launched in 1958 and he helped launch the Pioneer 10 and 11 to Jupiter and Saturn.

Early life

He studied aeronautical engineering at MIT after receiving a scholarship to attend.


He was a guest on an episode of What s My Line? in 1957.

Family of Karel Bossart

He grew up in Belgium but resided in California after attending MIT.

Close associates of Karel Bossart

He was a fan of John Glenn.

Marie Curie

About Marie Curie

Polish physicist and chemist who discovered two radioactive elements: radium and polonium. She became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in 1903 when she won the award for physics. In 1911, she won the award again for chemistry.

Early life

She was born poor because her family gave up their property during the Polish national uprisings.


She was the first female professor at the University of Paris, and the first person to win multiple Nobel Prizes.

Family of Marie Curie

Her real name is Marie Sklodowska Curie. She married Pierre Curie, a French physicist who shared the 1903 Nobel Prize with her, on July 26, 1895. The couple had two children, Irène Joliot-Curie, who followed in her parents footsteps and became a scientist, and Ève Curie, who went on to become a writer.

Close associates of Marie Curie

Like Linus Pauling, she was a chemist and earned the Nobel Peace Prize.

Andrei Sakharov

About Andrei Sakharov

Russian atomic physicist who worked on the hydrogen bomb and other Soviet thermonuclear weapons. An outspoken dissident and critic of the Soviet regime, he earned a Nobel Peace Prize in 1975 for his advocacy of civil liberties and civil reforms within the communist country.

Early life

He took after his grandfather, who advocated for civil rights in Tsarist Russia.


He was sent to internal exile in the city of Gorky, which was off-limits to foreigner, in 1979 after he was arrested for publicly protesting the 1979 Soviet intervention of Afghanistan.

Family of Andrei Sakharov

He was not allowed to leave the USSR to claim his Nobel Peace Prize, so his wife went to Oslo, Norway and read his speech at the award ceremony.

Close associates of Andrei Sakharov

In 1980 he was exiled, but six years later Russian president Mikhail Gorbachev invited him back to live in Moscow.