Functions

MBTI Functions

Self-Awareness: MBTI Jung CognitiveFunction Descriptions
Adapted from:
Berens, L.V. (1999). Dynamics of personality type: Understanding and applying Jung’s Cognitive Processes. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications.
Rev. Date: 3/18/10
Extraverted Introverted
Se – extraverted Sensing
Focused on the “here and now”
When Se is a preferred process, there is a sense of fully
participating in the immediate context to the point of
“oneness” with whatever is going on; being energized by
being very in touch with the tangible environment and “what
is” is appreciated for what it is and nothing beyond that. There
is a quality of realism, noticing what really exists in all its
sensory richness and liking lots of stimulation and variety.
There is attention to the rapidly shifting information in a
constantly changing scene in all its randomness, attending to
what is most relevant at the time and ignoring the rest.
Si – introverted Sensing
“Comparing present to past & future experiences”
When Si is a preferred process, there is a tendency to
continually compare what is against what was before and then
against what will be. Information from the past come as a
“knowing” that is rich in detail and everything that is
connected with that memory comes forward in sequence.
Such experiences are truly energizing in their familiarity.
What registers is this vast internal database is that which is
somehow intensely experienced. There is a triggering of a
whole host of past associations, which are reviewed before
current information is accepted as worthwhile.
Ne – extraverted iNtuiting
Brainstorming & “Connecting the Dots”
When Ne is a preferred process, there is much reading
“between the lines.” It is as if potential possibilities and
meanings are “revealed” and must be explored. There is a
sense of fully engaging in emerging new approaches to doing
things and being energized by discovering other perspectives
on things and people in an ever-shifting succession of ideas or
insights triggered by the particular situation, much like
brainstorming. This is often experienced as a flight of ideas
that bring relevant pieces of information from one context into
another. “What is” is not seen for what it is, but for its
relationship to other things. As everything is perceived in a
context of a web of relationships, nothing stands alone or
disconnected.
Ni – introverted iNtuiting
Flashes of Insight & Focus on the Future
When Ni is a preferred process, there is often a certainty
about what is going to happen, often without detail and
without being able to trace the actual data that would support
the prediction. There is often an experience of being
energized by transformational visions of how someone can
grow or of a completely original approach and being drawn to
make those visions manifest. There are often experiences of
flashes of insight that present themselves as conceptual
wholes or profound symbols are a frequent. Very broad
themes and complex whole patterns or systems of thought
often present themselves without being triggered by external
events. Inner images come as a knowing with certainty that
they are true and often universally significant.
Te – extraverted Thinking
A Place For Everything & Everything In Its Place
When Te is a preferred process, organizing space, things, and
ideas comes easily. Putting things in order is an energizing
activity in and of itself and satisfaction is felt from “a place
for everything and everything in its place.” There is even a
tendency to create some sort of organizing system if one
doesn’t already exist and a great deal of comfort in using
conventional ones like alphabetizing, numerical sequences,
pert charts, organizational charts, matrices, tables, etc.
Information is assessed based on the “laws” of either science
or society and logical explanations are sought for everything.
Ti – introverted Thinking
Analyzing & Problem Solving
When Ti is a preferred process, naming and categorizing is
second nature and almost impossible to avoid. There is often a
refined categorization scheme that is not necessarily made
public until something doesn’t fit. Delineating categories and
articulating principles can be as energizing as analyzing and
critiquing what is wrong with something. There is a tendency
to get at the root of things and to try to make sense of them,
often reporting only the essential characteristics rather than
explanatory detail. If something doesn’t fit the existing
frameworks, much thinking through is in order and the whole
framework may be revised.
Fe – extraverted Feeling
Being Thoughtful of Others
When Fe is a preferred process, much attention is given to
creating and maintaining harmonious relationships, often
using social conventions to keep harmony and make people
feel comfortable and included and to keep the group in tact.
There is often ease with social conversations and knowing just
the right thing to say to someone. Time, space, and things are
all organized in relation to the effects on people. Sometimes
there is a sense of having to take care of everyone or even
whole groups, either physically or emotionally, yet meeting
the needs of others is energizing.
Fi – introverted Feeling
Living by What is Right
When Fi is a preferred process, there is often a gut feeling
about whether personal, group, or organizational behavior is
congruent with values. Behavior is often checked for
authenticity and against beliefs to maintain inner harmony and
when that harmony exists there is a sense of peace.
Fundamental truths are often the basis for actions and
standing up for these truths is energizing and compelling.
Often, the values and beliefs are not put upon others or shared
publicly until they are violated. These values can be highly
specific to the individual or such universals as freedom,
loyalty, goodness, etc.
Jungian Functions
Adapted from:
Berens, L.V. (1999). Dynamics of personality type: Understanding and applying Jung’s Cognitive Processes. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos
Publications. Rev. Date: 3/10/10
MBTI
Type
Temperament Dominant
Function
Auxiliary
Function
Tertiary
Function
Inferior
Function
ISTJ Guardian
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
F
(Introverted)
Feeling
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
ISFJ Guardian
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
T
(Introverted)
Thinking
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
ESTP Artisan
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
F
(Extraverted)
Feeling
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
ESFP Artisan
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
T
(Extraverted)
Thinking
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
INTJ Rational
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
F
(Introverted)
Feeling
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
INFJ Idealist
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
T
(Introverted)
Thinking
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
ENTP Rational
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
F
(Extraverted)
Feeling
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
ENFP Idealist
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
T
(Extraverted)
Thinking
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
ISTP Artisan
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
N
(Introverted)
iNtuition
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
INTP Rational
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
S
(Introverted)
Sensing
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
ESTJ Guardian
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
N
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
ENTJ Rational
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
S
(Extraverted)
Sensing
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
ESFJ Guardian
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
Si
(Introverted)
Sensing
N
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
ENFJ Idealist
Fe
(Extraverted)
Feeling
Ni
(Introverted)
iNtuition
S
(Extraverted)
Sensing
Ti
(Introverted)
Thinking
ISFP Artisan
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
Se
(Extraverted)
Sensing
N
(Introverted)
iNtuition
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
INFP Idealist
Fi
(Introverted)
Feeling
Ne
(Extraverted)
iNtuition
S
(Introverted)
Sensing
Te
(Extraverted)
Thinking
Dominant/Leading
Early Childhood
Dominant/Leading Function
Auxiliary/Supporting
Adolescence
Auxiliary/Supporting Function
Tertiary/Relief
Young Adulthood
Tertiary/Relief (Third) Function
Inferior/Aspirational (Least
Preferred) Function
Inferior/Mid-life
Mid-Life
(0-7)
(8-16)
(17-25)
(35-55)
Natural Order of
Function Development*
(Your Natural Path to Wholeness)
Birth Death
*Berens, L.V. (1999). Dynamics of personality type: Understanding and applying Jung’s Cognitive Processes. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications.
Age of Onset
Rev. Date: 3/10/10
Jungian Functions
Adapted from:
Berens, L.V. (1999). Dynamics of personality type: Understanding and applying Jung’s Cognitive Processes. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos
Publications. Rev. Date: 3/10/10
This document has three pages, which are designed to help you understand the major idea’s
behind Carl Jung’s theory of cognitive (mental) processing.
Page 1: Jungian Function Descriptions
Jung’s theory states that there are different ways of mentally processing information. Those
ways of mentally processing information are represented by the two middle letters of your MBTI
type code (Sensing, iNtuition, Thinking, and Feeling)
Those four mental processes will look differently whether they are being processed externally
(Extraverted) or internally (Introverted). Therefore, there are a total of eight different cognitive
functions:
Extraverted Functions: Introverted Functions
• Extraverted Sensing (Se) Introverted Sensing (Si)
• Extraverted iNtuiting (Ne) Introverted iNtuiting (Ni)
• Extraverted Thinking (Te) Introverted Thinking (Ti)
• Extraverted Feeling (Fe) Introverted Feeling (Fi)
This page gives detailed descriptions of what each of these functions does.
Page 2: Natural Order of Function Development
This page illustrates the fact that there is a hierarchy to the cognitive functions. Normally, most
MBTI experts will only deal with the first four functions: Dominant/Leading,
Auxiliary/Supporting, Tertiary/Relief, and Inferior/Aspirational.
Therefore, if the personality has been allowed to develop the way it is supposed to, it will do one
of those four functions very strongly, one somewhat strong, one not so strong, and one that is
very weak and normally will not develop until midlife. Note that these different functions will
also develop at different times of life as well.
Page 3: Jungian Functions (Order Listed by MBTI Type)
To further complicate things, you will also see by this page that each of the sixteen different
personality types has a different hierarchy structure and different dominant function.
Note three things:

  1. Each of the eight functions has a two different personality types that have it as its
    dominant function.
  2. Those two personality types with the same dominant function may or may NOT be of the
    same Temperament.
  3. Introverted personality types will always have an introverted function as their dominant
    function (and therefore show their auxiliary [second best] function to the rest of the
    world.)
    Jungian Functions
    Adapted from:
    Berens, L.V. (1999). Dynamics of personality type: Understanding and applying Jung’s Cognitive Processes. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos
    Publications. Rev. Date: 3/10/10
  4. The inferior function will not become effective until mid-life.
    Why Does This Matter, and Why Do You Need to Understand This?
    This is important to understand for three primary reasons.
  5. Two personality types can have three letters alike, yet look very different – even within the
    same temperament. Yet at the same time, two personality types can have three letters the same,
    but look very similar, even when they are different temperaments.
    For example:
    · ESTJ (Guardian – Dominant Function: Extraverted Thinking)
    o Constantly organizing things (usually routine details)
    ·
    · ESFJ: (Guardian – Dominant Function: Extraverted Feeling)
    o Constantly worrying about pleasing other people
    ·
    · ENTJ (Rational – Dominant Function: Extraverted Thinking)
    o Constantly organizing things – towards long-term big-picture goals – not
    necessarily details
    Notice how the ESTJ looks more like the ENTJ than the ESFJ. Both are always organizing, and
    seldom think about other people’s feelings; whereas an ESFJ has difficulty not worrying about
    other people’s feelings. Yet the ESTJ and ESFJ are both Guardians.
  6. For some people, recognizing the difference between dominant functions (or even auxiliary
    functions) between two different personality types may help them when they are struggling to
    decide which of two types best fits them. (i.e.: ESTJ vs. ESFJ: What do you do more of?
    Sorting/organizing or worrying about other people’s feelings?)
  7. This concept of natural function development EXPLAINS WHY TRYING TO FORCE
    SOMEONE TO BE SOMETHING THEY ARE NOT IS SO DAMAGING TO THE
    INDIVIDUAL. The best way to ensure that someone becomes successful in life is by providing
    an environment that allows a natural development/expression of what they were designed to do
    most naturally (talents). That way, they can develop their natural talents and abilities. If instead,
    those natural talents are suppressed, then the individual is likely to develop certain character
    flaws.
Explore the world of Visual Identification
ENTP Faces ISFP Faces ESFJ Faces INTJ Faces
ESTP Faces INFP Faces ENFJ Faces ISTJ Faces
ESFP Faces INTP Faces ENTJ Faces ISFJ Faces
ENFP Faces ISTP Faces ESTJ Faces INFJ Faces